Several sheep are sick at a petting zoo that has cows, horses, pigs, bison, and white-tailed deer. One of the deer is also affected. Affected sheep are listless and off-feed, with serous or mucopurulent nasal dishcharge and rectal temperatures ranging from 105-107.5•F (40.5-42•C). Physical exam shows swollen muzzles with edema and congestion of the lips, nose, and face with small hemorrhages and ulcers on the mucous membranes. The ulcers appear where the teeth contact the swollen lips and tongue. Two affected sheep are lame.
What is the diagnosis?
B. Peste des petits ruminants
C. Contagious ecthyma (soremouth)
D. Caprine arthritis encephalitis
E. Foot and mouth disease
Answer: A. Bluetongue
Swollen muzzles with mucous membrane erosions, high fevers, and lameness suggests infection with blutongue virus. Blutongue is almost exclusively seen in sheep, though white-tailed deer, pronghorn antelope, and desert bighorn sheep in North America can be severely affected. Rare in cows. REPORTABLE.
Bluetongue is indistinguishable from foot and mouth disease, so that is a good second choice. But FMD is unlikely in the scenario above because FMD mainly affects pigs and cattle.
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